Citations are a form of performance measurement for academics as arguably the number of times a research paper is cited by other authors reflects its importance in that field more accurately than simply counting the number of papers published by a researcher or research group.
Citation indexes are routinely collated and used by journals as a measure of their importance and are included as one factor in calculating impact factor.
Their most recent analysis is for the field of fungal research and interestingly it shows that Europe dominates the world in this category, particularly powered by major fungal research centres in Germany, Holland and England, closely followed by France and Spain. Taken together the EU claims nearly twice as many citations as the US and nearly ten times as many as Japan.
Aberdeen University) and Wales (Cardiff University).
This success is said to largely reflect the size of the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre in Holland, the Pasteur Institute in France as well as multiple smaller Universities throughout Europe but perhaps most remarkable is the research prominence of the University of Manchester in this field. Professors David Denning and Stephen Oliver are placed first and third in the league table for authorship of papers and both work in Manchester.